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Full text of "Manual of timber connector construction."

1211-3 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



<^ SUPPLEMENT NO. 6 

CQ 



O 

z 



^ TIMBER CONNECTORS 



DESIGN and LOAD DATA 



"P^ » R <c , 



MANUAL OF TIMBER CONNECTOR 

CONSTRUCTION 

TIMBER ENGINEERING COMPANY 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



A t 

NATIONAL LUMBER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 

PUBLICATION Z 

UJ 

-J 

u: 
< 
< 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-USES-TYPES 



TECO connectors for timber construction are devices 
■ used in timber joints which give a high degree of effi- 
ciency to the connections and make possible the utilization 
of a higher proportion of the strength of the member 
outside the joint than is possible with most other types of 
fastenings. 

Timber joint connectors were introduced into America 
by the National Committee on Wood Utilization of the 
U. S. Department of Commerce. Since then connectors 
have been widely used for many types of construction. 
Improvements in certain types and the development of new 
types of connectors have been accomplished so that the 



diversified requirements for connectors in timber construc- 
tion are now quite completely met. 

Timber joint connectors of several types have been ex- 
tensively tested by the Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Serv- 
ice, U. S. Department of Agriculture at Madison, Wisconsin. 

The designs and technical information presented in the 
following pages were prepared by J. E. Myer of the Timber 
Engineering Company, from the test data of the Forest 
Products Laboratory and from conferences with members 
of its staff, particularly John A. Newlin and J. A. Scholten, 
of the Division of Timber Mechanics. Acknowledgment 
is also made to various university and private laboratories. 



TYPES OF TECO TIMBER CONNECTORS 




SPLIT-RING 

Manufactured From low carbon steel: Used between two timber 
faces for heavy construction and fits into pre-cut srooves in the timber 
faces. The tongue and groove "split'* permits simultaneous ring bearing 
against the core wall and outer wall of the groove into which the ring 
is placed. The inside bevel and mill edge facilitates installation into 
and removal from its groove. 




TOOTHED-RING 

Manufactured from low carbon steel: Used between t^o '""ber 
faces for comparatively lisht construction and embedded mto the 
contact faces of the joint members by means of pressure. 






Male 



Female 



CLAW-PLATES 

Malleable iron connectors: Used as "units" either in pairs for 
timber to-timber connections or singly in making timber-to-metal con- 
^ctLs The female plates are adapted to use when the connector 
Ts Tie flush with the surface of the timber. Claw-plates are .nstalled 
by lorcing tl,e teeth into the wood beyond the depth of the c.rcular 
dap cut to receive the rim and plate portions. 




Pressed-Steel Malleable Iron 

SHEAR-PLATES 

These plates when installed lie flush with the timber surface. They 
are used as "units" in pairs for timber-to-timber joints with two plates 
placed back to back, or singly in timber-to-metal joints with the plate 
placed with its back toward the metal. The plates fit into pre-cut 
grooves in the timber faces. 





FUl 



SinsI* Curve 

SPIKE-GRIDS 



Double Curvt 



Manufactured from malleable cast iron: Used primarily in pier and 
trestle construction between either flat or curved surfaces. They arc 
embedded into the wood surfaces by means of pressure. 





Plain 



Ranted 



CLAMPING-PLATES 



Stamped from meUl sheets: Used as railroad "tie spacers between 
ties and guard timbers to keep the ties properly spaced, «>' ^;«« 
timbers overlap at right angles. The plain clamping f'^^t^^ 
on opposite faces is seated by means of a special block wh'chprote^ 
the connector during the driving process. The flanged cl*'«P'''3-P'«^ 
with teeth on one face only is driven into place with a maul or r««, 
the connector be-c r.rctected from damage by a steel cover plate. 



CopyH,M. 0.i..- SU.« o. A-«ic.. t939, r.-b« E..««-M Co-P-r. 



Copyfiftt, Cwd., 19J9. ^r Ttab* 






WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-FACTORS INFLUENCING ALLOWABLE LOADS 



The allowable safe working loads for timber connectors 
presented in the tables are for standard use conditions. 

STANDARD DESIGN LOADS 

Standard Design Loads apply to most of the loading con- 
ditions under which all types of TECO connectors are used, 
where the dead loads are less than the live loads, and where 
the full live loads are applied for relatively short periods 
of time. They are 115 per cent of the basic values which 
were derived from test data by applying appropriate factors. 
For those connectors, namely, split-rings, claw-plates and 
shear-plates, which exhibited an initial straight line load- 
deformation ratio and a proportional limit, a factor either of 
4.0 on maximum test loads or 1.8 on proportional limit loads 
was applied; the lower result being the basic value taken. 
Where the characteristics of test curves for connectors 
lacked a definite straiqht line load-deformation ratio, and 
where the proportional limit was not clearly indicated, such 
as for the toothed-rings, spike-grids and clamping-plates, 
a factor of 4.5 was applied to the maximum load. These 
factors are more conservative than those generally applied 
in foreign countries where connectors were developed and 
widely used. The basic values as determined above allow 
for a permanently applied full load, a condition not usually 
encountered in the use of timber connectors. 

PERMISSIBLE LOAD INCREASES 

Wood is able to support loads of short-time duration such 
as caused by wind, earthquake and impact, greatly in excess 
of permanently applied loads, hence appropriate increases 
in connector loads drz allowed depending on whether the 
failure at ultimate joint load is of the wood, or a combination 
of wood and metal, or of the metal. Recommended load 
increases are given in the notes accompanying the table 
for each connector. Increases in connector loads in excess 
of those customarily allowed for wind and earthquake are 
justifiable for those types of structures where life hazard is 
not involved, where property damage would be slight in 
case of failure, where the ability to stay exactly in place is 
not important or where infrequent replacements are more 
economical than the expense involved in more conservative 
design. 

LUMBER THICKNESS 

Tabulated loads apply to connectors when used with 
lumber of the net thickness specified in the tables. The use 
of connectors in lumber thinner than the minimum given in 
the tables is not recommended. 

CONDITION OF LUMBER 

Tabulated loads apply to connectors used in lumber 
seasoned to approximately 15 per cent moisture content 
within 1/2'' of the surface, which is the condition it will 
eventually reach in most parts of the United States. When 
installed in green or wet material which will remain wet 
a reduction in the tabulated loads is required. Where 
conditions are such that the lumber in which the connectors 
are installed will become seasoned to 15 per cent moisture 
content within a reasonable period of time, the full rated 
loads may be used with those connectors which fit into 
pre-cut grooves or daps,* and reduced loads, depending on 



the moisture content, must be used with those connectors 
which are installed by being pressed into the wood. Notes 
for each connector give the degree of load reduction 
necessary. 

LOADS FOR OTHER SPECIES 

Loads for species not listed may be estimated by a com- 
parison of their mechanical properties with those of the 
listed species or may be obtained on request from the Timber 
Engineering Company. 

WORKING STRESSES FOR LUMBER AND TIMBER 

For working stresses of lumber see Wood Structural 
Design Data, Supplement No. 1. 

LOADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES 
AND SPACINGS 

Standard Design Loads are for standard end and edge dis- 
tances and spacings. Standard distances and minimum dis- 
tances with load reduction factors dre given in the tables 
accompanying the load tables. Loads for distances inter- 
mediate of standard and minimum dre obtained by interpola- 
tion. These spacings and distances apply unless assemblies 
for specific use are tested and the results justify their modi- 
fication. Distances and spacings of connectors are measured 
as shown in the accompanying diagrams. 




a. 
b. 
c. 
d. 
e. 
f. 



Connector spacing parallel to grain 

Connector spacing perpendicular to grain 

End distance 

Edge distance 

Maintain end distance as minimum 

Maintain edge distance 

LOADS AT ANGLE TO GRAIN 



In general load capacities of connectors decrease as the 
angle of load to grain increases. The method of measuring 
angle of load to grain is shown by the following diagram. 




Direction o^ Ora/n 



The angle B used in determining the allowable loads on 
connectors, spacings between connectors, and edge and 
end distances, is that formed by the direction of grain in the 
member and the direction of the load transmitted to the mem- 
ber by the connector. When loads are axial in the members 
this angle is equal to the angle of intersection of the two 
members joined by the connector. When loads other than 
axial are superimposed on a member the direction of the 
resultant of all loads in the member is the direction of load 
used in determining angle to grain. 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-SPLIT-RING DESIGN DATA 



SPLIT-RING, Order Number 

(All dimensions in inches) 

Inside diameter at center when closed 

Thickness of metal 

Center 

Edge 

Depth 

Inside diameter of groove for rins installation. 

Width of groove 

Depth of groove 

Shipping weight, per 100 rings, lbs 



LUMBER DIMENSIONS, minimum required for installation of rings 
Face width 

Thickness, rings in one face only 

Thickness, rings of same size, placed opposite in both faces 



Thickness, with rings of different size, placed opposite in both faces. 



BOLT, diameter, minimum 

Diameter, with rings of different size, placed opposite in both faces. 



BOLT HOLE, maximum diameter in timber. 



WASHERS, Standard 

Round, cast or malleable iron, diameter. , 

Round, wrought iron (Minimum for use in simple structures) 

Diameter . . 

Thickness 

Square plate 

Length of side 

Thickness 



SPACING OF SPLIT-RINGS, center to center 
0°-30** angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain, standard, for full allowable load 

Spacing parallel to grain, intermediate, reduce loads 25% except for 

one ring 

Spacing parallel to grain, minimum, reduce loads 50% except for one ring 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, standard and minimum 

30°-90° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain, standard and minimum 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, standard 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, minimum, reduce loads 15% 



END DISTANCES, center of ring to end of piece 

Tension members, standard, for full allowable load 

Tension members, minimum, reduce load 37.5% 

With cross bolt between ring and end of piece, full load may be used 

with distances of 

Compression members, standard 

Compression members, minimum, reduce load 37.5% 



EDGE DISTANCES, center of ring to edge of piece 

0*'-30° angle of load to grain, standard and minimum 

30°-90° angle of load to grain, standard, on compression side of ring. . . , 
Minimum distance, reduce load 15% 

30°-90° angle of load to grain, standard and minimum, opposite compres- 
sion side of ring 



1 

2-1/2 

.163 
.143 
3/4 
2.56 
.18 
.37 
30 



3-5/8 

1 
1-5/8 



2 

4 

.193 
.173 
1 
4.08 
.21 
.50 
76 



5-1/2 

1 

1-5/8 

Use minimum for 

largest ring 



3 

6 

.245 
.245 
1-1/4 
6.12 
.27 
.62 
196 



7-1/2 

1-5/8 

2 



1/2 I 3/4 I 3/4 

Use minimum for 

largest ring 



9/16 



2-1/8 

1-3/8 
3/32 

2 
1/8 



6-3/4 

5 
3-3/8 

3-1/2 

3-1/2 
4-1/2 
3-1/2 



5-1/2 
2-3/4 

4 
4 

2-1 /2 



PROJECTED AREA for portion of one ring within a member; square inches. . 



1-3/4 
2-3/4 
1-3/4 

1-3/4 



13/16 



2 

5/32 



3/16 



6-7/8 
4-7/8 
5-1/2 

5-1/2 
6-1/2 
5-1/2 



7 
3-1/2 

5-1/2 
5-1/2 

3-1 /4 



2-3/4 
3-3/4 
2-3/4 

2-3/4 



1.10 



2.25 



13/16 



3 

1/4 



12 

9-1/2 

7 
7-1/2 

7-1/2 
8-1 /2 
7-1/2 



9 
4-1/2 

7-1/2 
7-1/2 
4-1/4 



3-3/4 
4-3/4 
3-3/4 

3-3/4 



4.16 




SPLIT-RING 



T 



SINGLE SPLIT-RING JOINT 

ASSEMBLY 

Split-ring in one face oi each 

member 



MULTIPLE SPLIT-RING JOINT 
ASSEMBLIES 

Split-rings opposite in both faces 

of middle members; in one face of 

side members 

(Single bolt and more than 
one ring) 



■*-4: 



MULTIPLE SPLIT-RING JOINT 
ASSEMBLY 

Split-rings in one face of each 

member 

(More than one bolt with sptit-dng 
on each bolt) 



SPLIT-RING SPEanCATIONS 

Split-rlnfft shall be manufactured From Kot rolled, low carbon steel conbrmlns to 
A.S.T.M. SUndard Spcciflcationf For carbon tlcel A 17-S9, Type A, Grade 1. Etck 
rins iKall form a cloicd true circle with an outside cylindrical larface parallel to the axil 
of the ring. The Iniide surface , eicept for split-ring No. 3, shall be beveled from the 
median line toward the edges. It thai! be cut through in one place in lb circumference to 
form a tongue and slot. Split-rings shall conform to the dimensions of those menu- 
factufed by the Timber Engineering Company. 



CONDITION OF LUMBER 

Tabulated toads apply lo tplit-rlngs used In seasoned lumber which hat • moisture 
content not exceeding 1 5 per cent within 1 fi" of the surface or in green lumber which 
will reach this coftdition in the structure within a reasonable period of timt. If used In 
green lumber which will stay wet, use 67 per cent of the tabulated loads. 













WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 














5 






TIMBER CONNECTORS-SPLIT-RINGS-SAFE LOADS 


(^^^^k 




SINGLE SPLIT-RING LOADS 

The loads siven dre for a two-member joint assembly with one split- 
ring, a bolt, two washers and a nut, 

MULTIPLE SPLIT-RING LOADS 


SPLIT-RING 






For a joint assembly in which more than one split-ring of the same 
or of different sizes are used in the contact faces concentric with the . ^ ^^ . ^ ..^ . ,^ ^.«.. .,„ ...^ ^«.^...^e 
same bolt axis or in which more than one bolt is used with split-rings "-OADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES AND SPAONGS 
on each bolt, the safe load is the sum of the loads given for each ring Standard Design Loads are for standard distances and spacings. 
^^^^' Standard and minimum distances and spacings with load reduction factors 
CONCENTRIC PLACEMENT BETWEEN SAME TIMBER SURFACES are given in the table on page 4. Loads for end and edge distances 

,y,, e . f ,. . . <5na spacings intermediate of standard and minimum may be determined 

When grooves tor two sizes of split rings are cut, concentric in the by interpolation, 
same timber surface, rings shall be installed in both grooves and the allow- 
able load shall be equal to the tabulated load for the larger ring only. LOAD AT ANGLE TO GRAIN 

WIND AND EARTHOUAKE LOADS Loads at angles to grain intermediate of those in the table may be 
For wind or earthquake loads alone or a combination of wind or determined by interpolation. 
earthquake with dead or live loads or both, the safe loads on split- 
rings may be taken as 130 per cent of the Standard Design Loads pro- DEFORMATION OF JOINTS UNDER LOAD 
vided the resulting size or number of connectors is not less than re- jhe average total deformations in inches for split-ring joints from zero 
quired for the dead and live loads alone. ,^^^ ,^ ^,J^^^^ Design Loads are as follows: 

iMPAa LomI ApplUd 

When using the Standard Design Loads, the load on a split-ring due Splii-Rinf DUmtUr to train to frain 
to a force producing impact shall be taken as 57.5 per cent of the sum Ntt«ib«f inch«i inciitt inch«i 

of the force as a static load and the load due to its impact, but shall not 1 . . . 2-1/2 040 050 

be taken as less than the load caused by the force acting as a permanent 2. . . 4 045 055 

static load; i. e., impact up to 74 per cent of the force producing impact 3. . . . .050t 060t 

may be neglected, fEstimated 

Standard Design Loads for One Split-Ring and Bolt in Single Shear 






Species 


SPLIT-RING 


BOLT 
diameter 
(inches) 


Lumber thickness (net) for 
Connectors used 


Allowable LOAD In pounds per CONNECTOR and 
BOLT at angle of load to grain of 






Number 


diameter 
(inches) 


In one Opposite in 
face only | two faces 






0" 


15' 


30^ 


45' 


60' 


75' 


90' 






GROUP A 

Dense structural 
grades of 
Douqiat Fir, 
Southern Pine 


1 


272 


V2 


1' and thickar 


1-5'8' 


2750 
3300 


2618 
3142 


2487 
2983 


2355 
2825 


2223 
2667 


2092 
2508 


I960 
2360 






2" »n4 thicker 






2 


4 


w 


1' 




4270 
4600 

5170 
6300 
6400 


4068 

4277 
4914 
5985 
6000 


3847 
4063 

4667 
5670 
5760 


3636 
3830 

4401 
5366 

5440 


3423 

3607 
4144 
5040 
6120 


3212 
3383 

3887 
4720 
4800 


3000 

3160 
3630 
4410 
4480 

4200 
5010 
5490 
6300 






1-5/8* and thicker. 


1-5/8' 






2* 






2-5/8* 






3* and thicker 






3 


6 


3/4 


1-5/8* 


2* 

2-5/8' 

3* 

3-5 8' and thickar 


7000 
8346 

9155 
10600 


6533 

7789 
8544 
9800 


6067 
7233 
7933 

9100 


5600 

6678 
7323 
8400 


5133 

6122 

6712 
7700 


4667 
5666 

6101 
7000 






2' and thicker 






GROUP B 

Non-dense 
structural grades 
of Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine/ 
structural 
grades of 
Western Larch, 
Tamarack, Ash, 
Beech, Birch, 
Maple, Oak 


1 


272 


V2 


1'and thicker 


1-5 8' 

2* and thickar 


2375 
2860 


2258 
2708 


2140 
2567 


2023 
2425 


1906 
2283 


1788 
2142 


1670 






2 


4 


3/4* 


1'. 

1-5 8* and thicker 




3660 

3860 
4430 
5400 
5600 


3478 
3668 

4207 
5130 
5225 


3297 
3467 
3983 
4860 

4950 


3115 
3275 
3760 
4690 
4675 


2933 
3084 

3637 
4320 
4400 


2752 
2892 
3313 
4060 

4125 


2570 
2700 
3090 
3780 
3800 






1-5/f' 






2' 






2-5 8* 






3' and thicker 






3 


6 


3/4 


1-5/8' 

2* and thicker 


2' 


6000 

7155 
7845 
9000 


5600 

6678 
7323 
8400 


5200 
6200 
6800 
7800 


4800 
5723 
6278 
7200 


4400 
5245 
5756 
6600 


4000 
4768 
5233 
6000 


3600 

4290 
4710 
6400 






2-5/8* 






3* 

3-5 8* and thickar 






GROUP C 

Structural 
grades of 
Cypress, 
Redwood 


1 


272 


V2 


1'and thtckar 


1-5 8* 


2000 


1886 
2275 


1792 
2150 


1688 
2025 


1583 

1900 


1479 
1775 


1375 
1660 






2* and thickar 


2400 






2 


4 


3/4* 


!• . 




3070 
3230 
3710 
4600 

46i0 


2913 
3066 

4275 
4380 


2757 
2900 

3333 
4060 

4120 


2600 
2736 
3146 
3825 
3890 


2443 
2570 
2967 
3600 
3660 


2287 
2406 
2768 
3375 
3430 


2130 
2240 
2680 
3190 
3200 








1-5/8* 






2' 








2-5 8* 






1-5/8* and thicker 


3* and thickar 






3 


6 


3/4 


1-5 8* 


2* 


5000 

5960 
6640 
7500 


4667 
5663 

6104 
7000 


4333 
5166 
5668 
6600 


4000 

4768 
9233 
8000 


3667 

4370 
4797 
5600 


3333 

3073 
4361 
5000 


3000 

3678 
3025 
4600 






2-5/8* 






3* 

3-5 8* and thicker . 






2* and thicker 






•Loads for the No. 2, 4' split-rinq may be increased 3-1 2% and 7% in lumber 2-5/8' thick and 5-1 2% <5nd 10% in lumber 3" thick 
for 7/8* and 1' bolts, respectively, when used in place of the 3 4' bolt; also, loads for 4' split-nnqs when used with 7 8" and 1* bolts 
in lumber 3-5 8* thick or thicker may be taken as 112% and 119% respectively of the tabulated loads for the connector with 3/ 4' bolt in 
3* material. 

Bmic v«iy«s k>r split-nnss, from which SUndard D««iffi Lo«af for lh« dif«f«fil tHtckii«««s of iv«b€r w«rt d€riv«d, for Grovp B sp«ci«s p««ll«l to the flrsin «r« 14t0 lb* , 4719 
Ibt. Mid T8tO tbs., Mid p«ffp«ndicMl«r to Hi€ srain ar* 1 740 Ibt., 9350 lbs. Mid 4700 Ibt. for Hi* Not. 1 2 Mid 3 «iil-ftnfs respectively. VsIms for Growp A ipocios mm apprea- 
iaialaly 16 per cent flrea«er and valves for Group C species are approtiaMtelv 16 per cent less iHaii tliose for Groep B species. For wind loedi b«i< vdMt May be increaacd 
50 per cent and impact ap to 100 per cent of the force prodecinf impact may be neflected. 











WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-TOOTHED-RINGS DESIGN DATA 



TOOTHED.RING, Order Number 

(All dimensions in inches) 

Diameter 

Thickness of metal 

Depth 

Depth of fillet, minimum 

Shipping weisht, per 100 rinss, lbs 

LUMBER DIMENSIONS, minimum required for installation of rings 

Face width/ standard and minimum 

Thickness, rings in one face only 

Thickness, rings opposite in both faces. 

BOLT, diameter, minimum 

Diameter for rings of different size placed on same bolt 

BOLT HOLE, maximum diameter in timber. . 

WASHERS, minimum 

Round, cast or malleable iron, diameter 

Square plate 

Length of side . 

Thickness 

SPACING OF TOOTHED-RINGS, center to center 
0°-30° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain, standard, for full allowable load 

Spacing parallel to grain, intermediate, reduce loads 25% except for one 

ring 

Spacing parallel to grain, minimum, reduce loads 50% except for one ring 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, standard and minimum 

30*^-90° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain 

Spacing perpendicular to grain 

END DISTANCES, center of rinq to end of piece 

Tension members, standard, for full allowable load 

Tension members, minimum, reduce load 33% 

With cross bolt between ring and end of piece, the full load may be 

used with distances of 

Compression members, standard and minimum 

EDGE DISTANCES, center of ring to edge of piece 

0°-30° angle of load to grain 

30*^-90° angle of load to grain, standard 

30°-90° angle of load to grain, minimum, reduce load 15% 

PROJECTED AREA for portion of one ring within member, square inches.. 



2 
.061 
.94 
.25 

9.0 



3 

1 
1-5/8 



2-5/8 
.061 
.94 
.25 

12.0 



3-5/8 

1 
1-5/8 



3-3/8 
.061 
.94 
.25 

15.0 



4-5/8 

1 
1-5/8 



1/2 5/8 3/4 3/4 

Use minimum for larger ring 



4 
.061 
.94 
.25 
18.0 



5-1/2 

1 
1-5/8 




TOOTHED-RING 



t 



U 



9/16 



2 

3/16 



3-1/2 

3-1/4 

3 
2-1/2 

2-1/2 
3 



3-1/2 
2 

2 
2 



1-1/2 

2 
1-1/2 



.94 



11/16 13/16 13/16 



2-5/8 

2-1/2 
1/4 



4-1/2 

4-1 /8 
3-5/8 
3-1/8 

3-1/8 
3-1/2 



4-1/2 
2-5/8 

2-5/8 
2-5/8 



1-3/4 
2-1/2 
1-3/4 



1.23 



3 

1/4 



5-3/4 

5-1/8 
4-3/8 

3-7/8 

3-7/8 
4-1/2 



5-3/4 
3-3/8 

3-3/8 
3-3/8 



2-1/4 

3 
2-1/4 



1.59 



3-1/2 

3-1/2 
3/8 



6 

5 

4-1/2 

4-1/2 
5-1/2 



2-3/4 

3-1/2 
2-3/4 



1.88 



SINGLE TOOTHED.RING 

JOINT ASSEMBLY 

Toothed-Ting in one face of 

each member 



c 



t 



MULTIPLE TOOTHED-RING 

JOINT ASSEMBLY 
Toothed-rings opposite in 
both faces of middle mem- 
bers; in one face of side 
members 
(Single bolt and more than 
one ring) 



MULTIPLE TOOTHED.RING 

JOINT ASSEMBLY 

Toothed-rings in one face of 

each member 

(More than one bolt with ring on 
each bolt) 



TOOTHED-RING SPEQFiCATlONS 

Toothtd-ftng timber connectors shall be stamped cold from U. S. Standard 16 gtfle 
hot rolled sheet steel conforming to A.S.T.M. Standard Specifications for carbon steel 
A 17-29, Type A, Grade 1, and shall be bent cold to form a circular, corrugated, sharp- 
toothed band and welded into a solid ring. The teeth on each ring shall be on a true 
circle and shall be parallel to the axis of the ring- The central band shall be welded 
to fully develop the strength of the band. Toothed-rings shall conform to the dimtn- 
•loni of those manufactured by the Timber Engineering Company. 



CONDITION OF LUMBER 

Tabulated loads apply to toothed-rings used In seasoned lumber which has • moisture 
content not exceeding 15 per cent within 1 /i" of the surface. Loads for toothed-rlnfls 
In green lumber (24 per cent or more moisture content) should not exceed 60 per cent 
of those shown/ for intermediate moisture contents between 24 per cent and 1 5 per cent, 
interpolate according to the percentage of moisture content of the timber surface. 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS— TOOTHED. RINGS-SAFE LOADS 



SINGLE TOOTHED.RING LOADS 

The loads given are for a two-member joint assembly with one 
toothed-ring/ a bolt, two washers and a nut. 

MULTIPLE TOOTHED-RING LOADS 

For a joint assembly in which more than one toothed ring of the same 
or oF different sizes are used in the contact faces concentric with the 
same bolt axis or in which more than one bolt is used with toothed- 
rings on each bolt, the safe load is the sum of the loads given for each 
ring used. 

CONCENTRIC PLACEMENT BETWEEN SAME TIMBER SURFACE 

Two toothed-rings in combination of the sizes Nos. 1 and 3, Nos. 1 
and 4, or Nos. 2 and 4 may be placed concentrically to the same bolt 
between the same timber surfaces. These combinations result in a 
total load value equal to the tabulated load for the larger ring plus 
25 per cent of the tabulated load for the smaller ring. 
WIND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

For wind or earthquake loads alone or a combination of wind or 
earthquake with dead or live loads or both, the safe loads on toothed- 
rings may be taken as 116 per cent of the Standard Design Loads, pro- 
vided the resulting size and number of connectors are not less than 
required for the dead and live loads alone. 

IMPACT 

When using Standard Design Loads, the load on a toothed-ring due to 
a force producing impact shall be taken as 115% of the sum of tne force 
as a static load and the load due to its impact. 




TOOTHED-RING 



LOADS AT ANGLE TO GRAIN 

Loads at angle to grain intermediate of 
those given in the table may be determined 
by interpolation. 

LOADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES AND 
SPACINGS 

Standard Design Loads are forstandard distances and spacings. Standard 
and minimum distances and spacings with load reduction factors are given 
in the table on page 6. Loads for end and edge distances and spacings 
intermediate of standard and minimum may be obtained by interpolation. 

DEFORMATION OF JOINTS UNDER LOAD 

The average deformations in inches for toothed-ring joints from zero 
load to Standard Design Loads are as follows: 



Load Applied 



Toothed- 
Ring 
Number 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 



R[n9 

Diameter 

inches 

. 2.... 
. 2-5/8. 
. 3-3/8. 
. 4 



Parallel 

to grain 

inches 



.004.. 

.006t. 
.008.. 
,010.. 



Perpendicular 
to grain 
inches 



.006 
.008t 

.oiot 

.01 2t 

t Estimated. 



Standard Design Loads for One Toothed-Ring and Bolt in Single Shear 



TOOTHED.RING 



Species 



GROUP A 

Dense structural 
grades of 
Dougles Fir, 
Southern Pine 



Number 



3 



GROUP B 

Non-dense 
structural 
Srades of 
Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine; 
structural 
grades of 
Western Larch, 
Tamarack, 
Ash, Beech, 
Birch, Maple, 
Oak 



4 



diameter 
(inches) 



2% 



33/8 



4 



4 



2% 



BOLT 
diameter 
(inches) 



'A' 



% 



3/4 



3/4 



1/0* 



V<2 



33/8 



GROUP C 

Structural 
grades of 
Cypfe$$, 
Redwood 



2 



4 



25/8 



5/8 



Lumber thickness (net) for 
Connectors used 



In one 
face only 



1* and thicker. 



1-5/8'' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



r 



1-5/8* and thicker. 



1' and thicker. 



Opposite in 
two Faces 



1-5/8" 

2" and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2" 

2-1/2' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-5/8' - 

3' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2" and thicker. 



3/4 



3/4 



1/2* 



% 



33/8 



3/4 



1-5/8' and thicker. . 



r 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1* 



1-5/8* and thicker. 



1' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker.. 



3/4 



1-5/8' and thicker... 



r 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-1/2' and thicker. 



Allowable LOAD in pounds per CONNECTOR and 
BOLT at angle of load to grain of 



7'/2^ 



1265 
1390 



1580 
1900 
2100 
2370 



2225 
2470 
2705 
3100 
3335 



2575 
2970 
3215 
3620 
3860 



1150 
1265 



1435 
1725 
1910 
2155 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-1/2' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3* and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. .. 



1-5/8' 

2' 

2-5/8'. ....... 

3' and thicker. 



2020 
2245 
2460 
2815 
3030 



2340 
2700 
2920 
3290 
3510 



15° 



2254^ 



1213 
1332 



1514 
1821 
2013 
2273 



2133 
2367 
2593 
2970 
3196 



2468 
2847 
3081 
3469 
3699 



1103 
1213 



1375 
1654 
1830 
2066 



1936 
2151 
2358 
2698 
2904 



1160 

1273 



1448 
1742 
1925 
2175 



2040 
2263 
2480 
2840 
3057 



2360 
2723 
2947 
3317 
3537 



1055 
1160 



1315 
1582 
1750 

1977 



1035 
1140 



1294 
1555 
1720 
1940 



1815 
2020 
2210 
2530 
2725 



2105 
2430 
2630 
2960 
3160 



2243 
2588 
2799 
3154 
3364 



992 
1092 



1240 
1490 
1649 
1859 



1739 
1936 
2119 
2425 
2612 



2018 
2329 
2520 
2837 
3029 



1852 
2057 
2255 
2580 

2777 



2145 

2475 
2677 
3017 
3217 



1108 
1215 



1332 
1663 
1838 
2078 



1948 
2160 
2368 
2710 
2918 



2253 
26C0 
2813 
3165 
3375 



1008 
1108 



1255 
1510 
1670 
1888 



1768 
1963 
2153 
2463 
2650 



948 
1043 



1186 
1425 

1 577 
1778 



1663 
1852 
2027 
2320 
2498 



1930 
2227 
2410 
2713 
2897 



2048 
2363 
2555 
2880 
3070 



905 
995 



1132 
1360 
1505 
1697 



30° 



1055 

1157 



1317 
1583 
1750 
1980 



1855 
2057 
2255 
2580 
2778 



2145 
2477 
2673 
3013 
3213 



960 
1055 



1195 
1438 
1590 
1798 



1683 
1868 
2050 
2345 
2523 



1950 
2250 
2433 
2743 
2923 



862 
947 



1587 
1768 
1935 
2215 
2385 



1843 
2125 
2300 
2590 
2765 



1078 
1295 
1433 
1617 



37'^° 



45^90' 



1003 


950 


1098 


1040 


1251 


1185 


1504 


1425 


1663 


1575 


1883 


1785 


1763 


1670 


1953 


1850 


2143 


2030 


2450 


2320 


2639 


2500 



2038 
2353 
2544 
2862 
3052 



913 
1003 



1135 
1367 
1510 
1709 



1599 
1774 
1948 
2228 
2397 



1853 
2138 
2312 
2607 

2777 



818 
898 



1512 
1683 
1843 
2110 
2272 



1755 
2023 
2190 
2467 
2633 



1024 
1230 
1362 
1536 



1436 
1599 
1752 
2005 
2158 



1668 
1922 
2080 
2343 
2502 



1930 
2230 
2410 
2710 
2890 



865 
950 



1075 
1295 
1430 
1620 



1515 
1690 
1845 
2110 
2270 



1755 
2025 
2190 
2470 
2630 



779 
850 



970 
1165 
1290 
1455 



1360 
1515 
1660 
1900 
2045 



1580 
1820 
1970 
2220 
2370 



* Increase loads 20% when H" bolt is used in place of A bolt , , . ^^^^ ^^^.^^^ ,^, Group B species parallel to Iht srein «rt 1100 Ibf., 
Basic value, for tooth.d-rings, from which Starvdard Design Loads '^^^ J.'^'^'/o^" »'^'%Ttbs°^^ iTd^^lsJoTb? rth. No? l/s, 3 ^ 4 too.h.d-riag, respectively. Value. 
1 875 lbs., 2630 lbs. and 3055 lbs., and perpend.cular to the gram •'« 825 lbs l^^l^^\]^^^^^ ^^^^^ j^, Group B speciet. For wind loads basic value, may be increased 33% 
fof Group A specie, arc 1 per cent greater and value, for Group C species are i upercenii«» ^ ^ ^ 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-CLAW-PLATE DESIGN DATA 



CLAW-PLATES, Order Number 

(All dimensions in inches) 

Diameter 

Depth oF plate and teeth 

Depth of outside hub 

Diameter of outside hub 

Diameter of central hole 

Shipping weight, per 100 claw-plates, lbs. . . . 
DIMENSIONS OF CIRCULAR DAP 

(A) 
(B) 
(C) 
(D) 
(E) 
(F) 
(G) 
(H) 



t 



-m 



w 



-8dr Hole 



LUMBER DIMENSIONS, minimum required for 
instdlldtion oP plates 

Face width 

Thickness^ plates in one face only 

Thickness, plates opposite in both faces 



STEEL STRAPS OR SHAPES used in combina- 

tion with claw-plates 

Standard thickness 

Minimum, (washers must be used to take up 

difference in hub depth of male claw-plate) 



HOLE, diameter in straps or plates. 



BOLT, diameter when male plates i^xz used singly 
or male & female are used in combination. . 
Diameter when female plates are used without 
male plates . . . . 



BOLT HOLE, diameter in timber when male 
plates or a combination of male & female 

plates iixz. used 

Diameter when female plates are used without 
male plates. 



WASHERS, minimum 

Timber-to-Timber Connections 

Round, cast or malleable iron, diameter. 

Square plate: Lenqth of side 

Thickness 

Timber-to-Steel Connections 

Round wrousht iron: Diameter 

Thickness 



1 
Male 

2-5/8 
.75 
.37 
.87 
.53 
58 

2.64 
1.12 
9/16 
.52 
.25 
.38 
.22 
.42 



3-5/8 

1-5/8 

2 



3/8 

1/4 



29/32 



1/2 



9/16 



SPACING OF CLAW-PLATES, center to 
center 
0**-30° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain, standard 

Spacing parallel to grain, intermediate, 

reduce loads 25% except for one ring . . . 

Spacing parallel to grain, minimum, reduce 

loads 50% except for one ring 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, standard 

and minimum 

30°-90° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain, standard and 

minimum 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, standard.. 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, minimum, 

reduce loads 15% 



2-1 8 

2 
3/16 

2 
5/32 



1A 

Female 
2-5/8 

.75 



.90 
40 

2.64 
1.12 
15/16 
.52 
.25 
.38 
.22 
.42 



3-5/8 

1-5/8 

2 



3/8 

1/4 



29/32 



7/8 



15/16 



3-1/2 
3 

1/4 

i 2 
5 32 



END DISTANCES, center of plate to end of 
piece 

Tension members, standard 

Tension members, minimum, reduce load 

37.5% 

With cross bolt between claw-plate and 
end of piece, full load may be used with 

distances of 

Compression members, standard 

Compression rr.embers, minimum, reduce load 
37.5% 



8-3/4 

5 
3-3 8 

3 1/'2 



3-1 2 
4-1 2 

3-1/2 



6-3/4 

5 
3-3 8 
3-1/2 



3-1 /2 

4-1 /2 

3-1 ,2 



5-1,2 
2-3,4 



EDGE DISTANCES, center of plate to edge of 

piece 
0^-30'^ angle of load to grdin, standard and 

minimum 

30^-90* angle of load to grain, standard on 

compression side of plate 

Minimum distance, reduce load 15% 

30^-90^ angle of load to grain, standard and 

minimum, opposite compression side of plate 



2-3/4 



PROJECTED AREA 

Souare inches. . . 



for one daw-plate only. 



1-3 '4 



2-3 4 
1-3 4 



1-3 4 



1.f7 



1-3/4 

2-3/4 
1-1/4 

1-3 4 



2 
Male 

3-1/8 
.75 
.37 
.87 
.53 
70 

3.16 
1.14 
9/16 
.76 
.25 
.38 
.22 
.42 



4-5/8 

1-5/8 

2 



3/8 

1/4 



29/32 



1/2 



9/16 



2-1 /8 

2 
3/16 

2 
5/32 



7-3/4 

6 

4 
4-1 ,'4 



4-1/4 
6-1/4 

4-1/4 



2A 

Female 

3-1 /8 
.75 



.90 
59 

3.16 
1.14 
15/16 
.76 
.25 
.38 
.22 
.42 



4-5/8 

1-5/8 

2 



3/8 

1/4 



29/32 



7/8 



15/16 



3-1 2 
3 

1/4 

2 
5/32 



4-1/2 
4-1/2 

3-1/2 



2-1/1 

1-1/1 
^-1 /I 

2-1 1 
2.14 



7-3/4 

6 

4 
4-1,4 



4-1 /4 
5-14 

4-1/4 



3 
Male 

4 

.75 

.37 

1.22 

.78 

93 

4.07 

1.55 

13/16 

1.01 

.25 

.38 

.28 

.45 



5-1/2 

1-5/8 

2 



3/8 

1/4 



1-1/4 



3/4 



13/16 



3 

3 

3/8 

4 
11/64 



4-1 /2 
4-1 ,^2 

3-1/2 



9 

6-7/8 
4-7/8 

5-1/2 



5 1/2 
6-1/2 

5-1/2 



7 
3-1/2 



5-1/2 
5-1/2 

4-1/2 



2-1/8 

1-1/1 
2-1/1 

2-1 1 



2-3 4 

3-3,4 

2-3/4 

2-3 4 



ZM 



3A 

Female 

4 
.75 



1.25* 
80 

4.07 
1.55 
1-1/4 
1.01 

.25 

.38 

.28 

.45 



5-1/2 

1-5/8 

2 



3/8 

1/4 



1-9/32 



1 -1 /4 



1-5/16 



4-3 8 

4 

3 8 

4 
11/64 



9 

6-7/8 
4-7/8 
5-1 /2 



5-1 2 
6-1/2 

5-1/2 



7 
3-1/2 



5-1 2 
6-1 /2 

4-1/2 



2-3 4 

3-3/4 

2-1/4 

2-3/4 



3.00 



3.00 




MALE CLAW-PLATE 



-^r 



WOOD-TO-WOOD JOINT 

Claw-plate in one face of each 
member 

(One unit — one claw-plate with and 
one without hub) 



J^ 



^ 



WOOD-TO-STEEL JOINT 

Claw'plate in one face of wood 
member 

(One unit — one claw-plate only 
with hub) 



^ 



I— ' — mm 



MULTIPLE CLAW-PLATE 
JOINT 

Claw-plates opposite in both faces 

of middle members; in one face of 

side members 

(Two units of claw-plates) 



MULTIPLE CLAW-PLATE 
UNIT JOINT 

Claw 'plates in one face of eacb 
member 

(More than one bolt with claw-plates 
on each bolt) 



CLAW-PLATE SPECIFICATIONS 

Cl«w-pl«lt timbtr conntcton shall b« ia«ll««bl« 
troft CAttinst, fnanuf*ctiir«d accord inf to A.S.T.M. 
Standard Specificationt A 47-3 3, Gradt 35018. 
Each claw-plate »hall contitl of • pcrforattd circvlar 
langtd plata with thrtt-tidad Itath arranscd about 
tht perimeter of on« face. The male plate thall 
kave intasral cylindrical hubi on bokh (acei con- 
centric to a bolt hole through the center of the 
pUte. The female piate ihalt be Hal on the tide 
oppotitc the teeth but thall have an integral cylin- 
drical hub concentric to the central boll hole and 
on the face with the teeth. Ctaw-ptatet thall con- 
h>nn to the dimentioni of thote manufacturad by 
Hit Tiinbar Entinaarinf Company. 



CONDITION OF LUMBER 

Tabuiatad load« apply to cUw-platat niad In 
Masoned lumbar which kai a moittiira contanl 
not cxceadinf 15 pt cent within 12" of the 
turfaca or in graan matarial wfiich will reach this 
condition in the ftructifre within a reasonable 
period of lima. If Uf4 in green material wliicli 
«HII flUy wat, um 67 par cant of the UbuUud loodt. 

ie Wli«ii m$94 without mate plate and «ri4li 
1 -1 /4" boH, rMs kola to 1 -5 1 6 '. 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-CLAW-PLATES-SAFE LOADS 



CLAW-PLATE WORKING LOADS 

Lodds given are for d two member joint assembly with d single 
connector unit (d unit may consist of two plates, male and female in 
combination, or of two female plates used back to back in the contact 
faces of a timber-to-timber joint, or of one male or one female plate 
used in conjunction with a steel strap or shape in a timber-to-metal 
joint) used with a bolt, two washers and a nut. 

MULTIPLE CLAW-PLATE LOADS 

For a joint assembly in which more than one claw-plate unit is used 
with the same bolt or in which more than one bolt is used with claw- 
plates on each bolt, the safe load is the sum of the loads for all the units. 

WIKD AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

For wind or earthquake loads alone or a combination of wind or 
earthquake with dead or live loads or both, the safe loads on claw- 
plates may be taken as 116% of the Standard Design Loads parallel to 
the grain and as 130% of the Standard Design Loads perpendicular to 
grain with loads at intermediate angles to the grain obtained by inter- 
polation, provided the resulting size and number of connectors is not 
less than required for the dead and live loads alone. 

iMPAa 

When using Standard Design Loads, the load on a claw-plate unit 
due to a force producing impact shall be taken as 115% of the sum of 
the force as a static load and the load due to its impact. 



LOADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES 
AND SPACINGS 




FEMALE CLAW-PLATE 



Standard Design Loads are for standard 
distances and spacings. Standard and mini- 
mum distances and spacings with load re- 
duction factors are given in the table on page 8. Loads for end 
and edge distances and spacings intermediate of standard and minimum 
may be determined by interpolation. 

LOAD AT ANGLE TO GRAIN 

Loads at angles to grain intermediate of those in the table may be 
determined by interpolation. 



DEFORMATION OF JOINTS UNDER LOAD 

The average deformations in inches for claw-plate joints from zero 
load to Standard Design Loads are as follows: 



Cl«w-plal« 
Nufflbtr 

1 and lA... 

2 and 2A... 

3 and 3A... 



Pl«t« 

Diamttcr 

Inches 

2-5/8.. 
3-1/8.. 
4 



Load Applied 
Parallel Perpendicular 

to grain to grain 

inches inches 



.015. 
.038. 
.038. 



.023 
.045 
.045 



Standard Design Loads for One Claw-Plate Unit and Bolt in Single Shear 



Species 



GROUP A 

Dense structural 
grades of 
Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine 



GROUP B 

Non-dense struc- 
tural grades of 
Douglas Fir, 
SoutKern Pine/ 
structural 
grades of 
Western Larch, 
Tamarack, Ash, 
Beech, Birch, 
Maple, Oak 



GROUP C 

Structural 
grades of 
Cypress, 
Redwood 



CLAW- PLATE 



Number 



1 



2 



diameter 
(inches) 



2% 



31/8 



25/8 



31/8 



25/8 



31/8 



BOLT 
diameter 
(inches) 



V2 



V2 



3/4 



1/2 



V2 



3/4 



V2 



1/2 



3/4 



Lumber thickness (net) for 
Connectors used 



In one 
face only 



1-5/8* and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker... 



1-5/8' 

1-3/4* and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

1-3/4' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker... 



1-5/8' and thicker... 



1-5/8' 

1-3/4' and thicker. 



Opposite in 
two Faces 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2* 

2-5/8* 

3' and thicker. 



2' 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2' 

2-5/8' 

3' and thicker. 



2' 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2' 

2-5/8'......... 

3' and thicker. 



2' 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



Allowable LOAD in pounds per CONNECTOR UNIT 
and BOLT at angle oi load to grain ol 



2400 
3600 



3130 
4110 
4700 



3990 
4820 
5320 
5980 



2090 
3130 



2730 
3580 
4090 



3470 

4190 
4620 
5200 



1770 
2660 



2310 
3035 
3470 



2950 
3560 
3930 
4420 



15° 



2302 
3453 



3003 
3944 
4510 



3833 
4531 
5111 
5745 



2003 
3002 



2618 
3433 
3923 



3333 
4025 
4438 
4995 



1710 
2568 



2217 
2913 
3330 



2833 
3419 

3775 
4245 



30° 



2203 
3307 



2877 
3778 
4320 



3677 
4441 
4903 
5510 



1917 
2873 



2507 
3288 
3757 



3197 
3860 
4257 

4790 



1650 
2477 



2123 
2790 
3190 



2717 
3278 
3620 
4070 



45° 



2105 
3160 



2750 
3612 
4130 



3520 
4252 
4693 
5275 



1830 
2745 



2395 
3142 
3590 



3060 
3695 

4075 
4585 



1590 
2385 



2030 
2668 
3050 



2600 
3137 
3465 
3895 



60° 



2007 
3013 



2623 
3447 
3940 



3363 
4063 
4483 
5040 



1743 
2617 



2283 
2997 
3423 



2923 
3530 
3893 
4380 



1530 
2293 



1937 
2545 
2910 



2483 
2997 
3310 
3720 



75° 



1908 
2867 



2497 
3281 
3750 



3207 
3874 
4274 
4805 



1657 
2483 



2172 
2851 
3257 



2787 
3365 
3712 
4175 



1470 
2202 



1843 
2423 
2770 



2367 
2856 
3155 
3545 



90° 



1810 
2720 



2370 
3115 
3560 



3050 
3685 
4065 
4570 



1570 
2360 



2060 
2705 
3070 



2650 
3200 
3530 
3970 



1410 
2110 



1750 
2300 
2630 



2250 

2715 
3000 
3370 



Basic values for claw-plates, from which Standard Design Loads for the different thicknesses of lumber were derived, for Group B species parallel to the grain are 2730 lbs., 
3560 lbs and 4520 lbs., and perpendicular to the grain arc 2050 lbs., 2670 lbs. and 3450 lbs. for the Nos. 1 and 1 A, 2 and 2 A, and 3 and 3 A claw-plates respectively. Values 
for Group A species are 1 5 per cent greater and values for Group C species are 1 5 per cent less than those for Group B species. For wind loads basic values may bt inaeased 
33-1/3 per cent. 



10 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-SHEAR-PLATE DESIGN DATA 



SHE AR-PL AXES, Order Number. 
Material . . . . 



(All dimensions in inches) 

Diameter of plate 

Diameter of bolt hole 

Thickness of plate . . 

Depth of flanse 

Shipping weight, per 100 plates, lbs. 



DIMENSIONS OF CIRCULAR DAP 



^ 



.T 



t; 



rt 



iFi 



^^^W//y^/<f 



(A) 
(B) 

(C) 
(D) 
(E) 
(F) 

(G) 

(H) 
(I) 



Pressed 
Steel 

2-5/8' 
.81 
.169 
.375 

40 



2.63 



13/16 



.19 
.45 
.25 



LUMBER DIMENSIONS, minimum required for installation of plates 

Face width 

Thickness, plates in one face only 

Thickness, plates opposite in both faces. 



STEEL STRAPS OR SHAPES used in combination with shear-plates 

Minimum thickness, plates on one face of straps or shapes 

Minimum thickness, plates opposite on both faces of straps or shapes. 
Hole diameter in straps or shapes for bolts, 



2.25 



2 
Malle- 
able 
Iron 

4' 
.81 
.20 
.62 
100 



4.03 

1.55 

13/16 

.97 

.27 

.64 

.22 

.50 

3.49 



2-A* 
Malle 
able 
Iron 

4* 
.94 
.20 
.62 
100 



3-5/8 

1 
1-5/8 



BOLT, diameter. 



BOLT HOLE, diameter in timber. 



WASHERS, standard 

Round, cast or malleable iron, diameter. . 

Round, wrought iron (minimum, for use in simple structures): 

Diameter 

Thickness 

Square plate: 

Length of side 

Thickness 



1/4 

1/2 

13/16 



3/4 



13/16 



5-1/2 
1-5/8 
1-3/4 



4.03 

1.55 

15/16 

.97 

.27 

.64 

.22 

.50 

3.49 



5-1/2 
1-5/8 
1-3/4 



3/8 

3/4 

13/16 



3/4 



13/16 



SPACING OF SHEAR.PLATES, center to center 

-30° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel to grain, standard for Full allowable load 

Spacing parallel to grain, intermediate, reduce loads 25% except for one 

Spacing parallel to grain, minimum, reduce loads 50%* except' for one ring' 
n^oP^S'."9 perpe;idicular to grain, standard and minimum. ... 
30 -90 angle of load to grain ' 

Spacing parallel to arain, standard and minimum 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, standard ' 

Spacing perpendicular to grain, minimum, reduce loads 15% 



2 
5/32 

3 

1/4 



END DISTANCES, center of plate to end of piece 

Tension members, standard 

Tension members, minimum, reduce load 37 5% 

^."<'l7°".k^2''. ^*^"." P'*'* '"^ '"^ ofpiece; full' load may be 

used With distances of . 

Compression members, standard 

Compression members, minimum, reduce load 37.5%. .'.'.'. 



^ o^^n^'^^'^'^S^.^' ^/"*^' ^^ P'^^^ *^ ^dge of piece 

QAO Xao''"^ , ^\^?^^J'^ 9''<!in, standard and minimum. . . . 

M angle of load to grain standard on compression side of plate* 
Minimum distance, reduce load 15% M«aic. 



^TidTlf ptl'e''.'/!''^ '^^'';"'. ^^-"<^^^d'-"d minimum, opposite compression 



PROJECTED AREA for one shear-pUte, square inches. 



6-3/4 

5 
3-3/8 

3-1/2 

3-1/2 
4-1/2 
3-1/2 



2 

5/32 

3 

1/4 



3/8 

3/4 

15/16 



7/8 



15/16 



5-1/2 
2-3/4 

4 

4 

2-1/2 



1-3/4 
2-3/4 
1-3/4 

1-3/4 



0,98 



SHEAR.|*LATE SPECinCATlONS 
cote!.^-! JT^^^ fro. MdjU., 

lo yit bott kot ^^ t«t«r>d«f Worn iK, «•. liSVZ tJiJTjL ** ^**^«'?^ 



6-7/8 
4-7/8 
5-1/2 

5-1/2 
6-1/2 

5-1/2 



3-1/2 

2-1/4 
11/64 

3 
1/4 



7 
3-1/2 

5-1/2 
5-1/2 
3-1/4 



2-3 4 
3-3/4 
2-3/4 

2-3/4 



2.48 



6-7/8 
4-7/8 
5-1/2 

5-1/2 

6-1/2 
5-1/2 



7 
3-1/2 

5-1/2 
5-1/2 

3-1/4 



2-3/4 
3-3/4 
2-3/4 

2-3/4 



2.48 




MALLEABLE IRON SHEAR-PLATES 



^ 



WOOD-TO-WOOD JOINT 

Shear-plate in one face of each 
member 

(One unit, two sfiear-plates 
bdck-to-back) 



^^ 



=^4i^ 



WOOD-TO-STEEL JOINT 

Shear-plate in one face of wood 
member 

(One unit, one shear-plate only) 



t 



t 



m 114 



m NT 



MULTIPLE SHEAR-PLATE 
JOINT 

Shear-plates opposite in both faces 

of middle members; in one face of 

side member 

(Two units of shear-plates) 



MULTIPLE SHEAR-PLATE UNIT 
JOINT 

(More than one bolt with shear-plates 
on each bolt) 



CONOmON OF LUMBER 
cJreM'*«o? Jf;*^^-'*'*'rc*'* •h««-pl.t« i»«d In MMontd l«mb«f which km t moUtmf 

r.en lumbt wh.ch w.lt .Uy wl, i„« 67 pt ctM of the Ubuiattd lo«dt. 
* ^^hwr-pJrt. No. i. A i. Identical with No. t e>c«p( for tit* ot boH hole. 



whidi 
to 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



11 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-SHEAR-PLATES-SAFE LOADS 



SHEAR-PLATE WORKING LOADS 

The loads siven are for a two member joint assembly with a single 
connector unit (a unit may consist either of two plates used back-to-back 
in the contact faces of a timber-to-timber joint or of one p!ate used in 
conjunction with a steel strap or shape in a timber-to-metal joint) used 
with a bolt, two washers and a nut. 

MULTIPLE SHEAR-PLATE LOADS 

For a joint assembly in which more than one shear-plate unit is 
used with specified bolt and washer sizes, the total safe load capacity 
of the connectors is equal to the sum of the loads for all the units. 

WIND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

For wind or earthquake loads alone or a combination of wind or 
earthquake with dead or live loads or both, the safe loads on shear- 
plates may be taken as 116% the Standard Design Loads parallel to 
the grain and as 130% of the Standard Design Loads perpendicular to 
grain with loads at intermediate angles to grain obtained by interpola- 
tion, provided the resulting size or number of connectors is not less than 
required for the dead and live loads alone. 

IMPACT 

When using Standard Design Loads, the load on a shear-plate due to a 
force producing impact shall be taken as 115% of the sum of the force 
as a static load and the load due to its impact. 




PRESSED STEEL SHEAR-PLATES 



LOADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES 
AND SPACINGS 

Standard Design Loads are for standard 
distances and spacings. Standard and mini- 
mum distances and spacings with load re- 
duction factors are given in the table on 
page 10. Loads for end and edge distances 

and spacings intermediate of standard and minimum may be determined 
by interpolation. 

LOAD AT ANGLE TO GRAIN 

Loads at angles to grain Intermediate of those in the table may be 
determined by interpolation. 

DEFORMATION OF JOINTS UNDER LOAD 

The average total deformations in inches for shear-plate joints from 
zero load to Standard Design Loads are as follows: 



Sh«ar- 
Plate 
Number 

1.... 

2.... 

2-A.. 



Plate 
Diametci 

Inches 

,. 2-5/8. 

. 4 

.. 4 



Bolt 

Diameter 
Inches 



Load Applied 
Parallel Perpendicular 



to grain 
inches 



to grain 
inches 



3/4 073 

3/4 098 

7/8 050 



100 
102 
090 



Standard Design Loads for One Shear-Plate Unit and Bolt in Single Shear 



Species 



GROUP A 

Dense structural 
grades of 
Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine 



GROUP B 

Non-dense 
structural 
grades of 
Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine/ 
structural 
grades of 
Western Larch, 
Tamarack, Ash, 
Beech, Birch, 
Maple, Oak 



GROUP C 

Structural 
grades of 
Cypress, 
Redwood 



SHEAR-PLATE 



Number 



2-A 



1 



2'A 



2 



diameter 
(inches) 



25/8 



2% 



25/8 



BOLT 
diameter 
(inches) 



3/4 



3/4 



% 



3/4 



3/4 



% 



3/4 



3/4 



% 



Lumber thickness (net) for 
Connectors used 



In one 
face only 



1' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8* and thicker. 



1* and thicker. 



1-5/8* and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



Opposite in 
two faces 



1-5/8' 

2' and thicker. 



1-3/4' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8* and thicker. 



1-3/4' 

2* 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2* and thicker. 



1-3/4' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8* and thicker. 



1-3/4* 

2' 

2-5/8* 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' 

2' and thicker. 



1-3/4' 

2' 

2-5/8'.. 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



1-3/4' 

2' 

2-5/8' 

3' 

3-5/8' and thicker. 



Allowable LOAD in pounds per CONNECTOR UNIT 
and BOLT at angle of toad to grain of 



2880 
3450 



4250 
4600 
5080 
5080 
5080 



4250 
4600 
5490 
6020 
6370 



2500 
3000 



3700 
4000 
4760 
5080 
5080 



3700 
4000 
4760 
5220 
5520 



2130 
2550 



3140 
3400 
4050 
4450 
4710 



3140 
3400 
4050 
4450 
4710 



15" 



2760 
3307 



4003 
4333 
5080 
5080 
5080 



4003 
4333 
5172 
5672 
6002 



2397 
2875 



3485 
3768 
4487 
4920 
5080 



3485 
3768 
4487 
4920 
5203 



2042 
2443 



2958 
3203 
3817 
4193 
4438 



2958 
3203 
3817 
4193 
4438 



30° 



2640 
3163 



3757 
4067 
4853 
5080 
5080 



3757 
4067 
4853 
5323 
5633 



2293 
2750 



3270 
3537 
4213 
4620 
4887 



3270 
3537 
4213 
4620 
4887 



1953 
2337 



2777 
3007 
3583 
3937 
4167 



2777 
3007 
3583 
3937 
4167 



45*^ 



2520 
3020 



3510 
3800 
4535 
4975 
5080 



3510 
3800 
4535 
4975 
5265 



2190 
2625 



3055 
3305 
3940 
4320 
4570 



3055 
3305 
3940 
4320 
4570 



1865 
2230 



2595 
2810 
3350 
3680 
3895 



2595 
2810 
3350 
3680 
3895 



60° 



2400 
2877 



3263 
3533 
4217 
4627 
4897 



3263 
3533 
4217 
4627 
4897 



2087 
2500 



2840 
3074 
3667 
4020 
4253 



2840 
3074 
3667 
4020 
4253 



1777 
2123 



2413 
2613 
3117 
3423 
3623 



2413 
2613 
3117 
3423 
3623 



75" 



2280 
2733 



3017 
3267 
3898 
4278 
4528 



3017 
3267 
3898 
4278 
4528 



1983 
2375 



2625 
2842 
3393 
3720 
3937 



2625 
2842 
3393 
3720 
3937 



1688 
2017 



2232 
2417 
2883 
3167 
3352 



2232 

2417 
2883 
3167 
3352 



90° 



2160 
2590 



2770 
3000 
3580 
3930 
4160 



2770 
3000 
3580 
3930 
4160 



1880 
2250 



2410 
2610 
3120 
3420 
3620 



2410 
2610 
3120 
3420 
3620 



1600 
1910 



2050 
2220 
2650 
2910 
3080 



2050 
2220 
2650 
2910 
3080 



B«slc voluci for ihear-plates, from which Standard Design Loads for (he different thicknesses of (amber were derived, for Group B species parallel to the grain are S610 Ibt., 
44S0* lbs. end 4800 lbs. and perpendicular to the srain arc 1955 lbs., 3150 lbs. and 31 50 lbs. for the Nos. 1, 2 and SA shear-plates respectively. Values for Group A ipccies 
art 1 5 per cent greater and values for Group C species are 1 5 per cent less than For Group B species. For wind loads, basic values may be increased 33 per cent. 

*While tests indicated a higher value parallel to grain for the joint assembly, the allowable shear for the 3/4 inch bolt (4420 lbs.) was assumed ai th« basic value In this Inilanca. 
The type of fallurt in test indicated the 15 per cent increase applied to determine Standard Design Loads was justified. 



12 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-SPIKE-GRID DESIGN DATA 



SPIKE-GRID, Order Number 

Type 

(All dimensions in inches) 

Size, square 

Total depth oP grids, maximum 

Length oF spikes 

Width of fillets 

Maximum depth of fillets .. , 

Diameter of bolt hole 

Shipping weight, per 100 grids, lbs. 



LUMBER DIMENSIONS, minimum recommended for installation of flat grids 
Face width 

Thickness 

Grids one face only 

Grids opposite in both Faces ,./.[../,..[, 

Minimum diameter of pile for curved grids ..,.,..[. 



BOLT, diameter. 



BOLT HOLE, diameter in timber. 



WASHERS 

Round, cast or malleable iron. 



Square plate , 



SPACING OF GRIDS, minimum, center to center 
0*^-30'' angle of load to grain 

Spacing paratlel to grain 

Spacing perpendicular to grain 

30°-90° angle of load to grain 

Spacing parallel or perpendicular to grain. . . 



1 
Flat 

4-1/8 

1 
.375 
.187 
.25 

1 .06 
50 



5-1/2 

1-5/8 
2 



2 

Single 
Curve 

4-V/8 
1.38 

.375 
.187 
.63 
1.06 
75 



3/4 or 1 



13/16 or 
1-1/16 



5-1/2 

1-5/8 
10 



3/4 or 1 



3 

Double 
Curve 

4-1 /8 

1.75 
.375 
.187 

1.00 

1.06 
107 




FLAT SPIKE-GRiD 



10 



3/4 on 



13/16 or 
1-1/16 



13/16 or 
1-1/16 



Standard Size for Bolt 
Diameter Used. 

3x3x3/8 Punched for Bolt 
Diameter Used. 




FLAT SPIKE-GRID JOINT 

Spike-grids opposite in both faces 

of middle member; in one face of 

side members 

CTwo braces attached to timber) 



END DISTANCES, center of grid to end of piece (tension or compression 
members) 

Standard 

Minimum, reduce loads 15% 



EDGE DISTANCES, center of grid to edge of piece 
Load applied at any angle to grain 

Standard 

Minimum, reduce loads 15% .[ . .[ 



PROJECTED AREA for portion of one grid within member, square inches. . 









7 
5-1/2 


7 
5-1/2 


7 
5-1/2 


5-1/2 


5-1/2 


5-1/2 


7 
5 


7 
5 


7 
5 


3-3/4 
2-3/4 


3-3/4 
2-3/4 


3-3/4 

2-3/4 


2.06 


2 06 


2.06 



SPIKE-GRID SPECIFICATIONS 

Spike-grid Umbtr conntctori ihall bt manufactured according to A.S.T.M SUndard 
Spec.flcation, A 47-33, Grade 35010, for malleable Iron catting.. Th.yVhaJI com ,1 
Tn n7.«''r "mf'L'^^'t^'^'S" ^fr'V • ^J .®" »*'""• »''*^ ^^'^^ 16 teeth ihich are hTd 
RIU . ^^^k M- ^'h^ \S' *^* **•* !["'*"'?*>» ««^»io" «h«" t>« diamond ,haped. 
FilltU for the tins e and double curve grids shall be increased in depth to allow for c«f>. 

w/dth^of •.^hV"«n*;"*''^" • »»''^*'';«" k^tw" *he sloping faces of the fillet. e^JaT to Thi 
bit.^TilllUrE^^ginLlV^llL':!!.^^"'**^'" *^ »^* '^'--'— ' ^'^^ — ^-ctured 



CONDITION OF LUMBER 

coIt^^nVnof JfAlni*'*'*'//'* »Pik«-9rids used in seasoned lumber which lias a moirturt 
Ti^L7LhI.f9A''^ ^^ ^f cent within 1 /r of iU «urf«:e. Load, for .pike-grid, 
of ?ho« shown Lr iM*' "j; f "^'^ "***'•*"'* ""»«"*> '''O"'** "<>* ""«<^ 60 P«' ""» 
•niemdate .r^^i^nl .r^^^ moisture contenb between S4 p«r cent and 1 5 per cent, 

interpolate according to the percenUge of moiiture conltnl of Iht timber «irf«ct: 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



13 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-SPIKE-GRIDS-SAFE LOADS 



SINGLE SPIKE-GRID LOADS 

The loads siven arc for a two member joint assembly with one spike- 
3rld a bolt, two washers and a nut 



MULTrPLE SPIKE-GRID LOADS 

For a joint assembly in which more than one spike-grid of the same 
or of different types are used in the contact faces of the timbers the 
total safe load on the connectors Is the sum of the loads given for each 
grid used. 

NtriND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

For wind or earthquake loads alone or a combination of wind or 
earthquake with dead or live loads or both, the safe loads on spike- 
grids may be taken as 130% of the Standard Design Loads provided the 
resulting size and number of connectors is not less than required for 
the dead and live loads alone. 



iMPAa 

When using Standard Design Loads, the load on a spike-grid due to 
a force producing Impact shall be taken as 115% of the sum of 
the force as a static load and the load due to its Impact. 




SINGLE CURVE SPIKE-GRID 



LOADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES 
AND SPACINGS 

Standard Design Loads are for standard 
distances and spacings. Standard and min- 
imum distances and spacings with load re- 
duction factors are given In the table on 
page 12. Loads for end and edge distances and spacings intermediate 
of standard and minimum may be determined by interpolation. 
LOAD AT ANGLE TO GRAIN 

Loads at angles to grain Intermediate of those In the table may be 
determined by interpolation. 

DEFORMATION OF JOINTS UNDER LOAD 

The average total deformations In inches for spike-grid joints from 
zero load to Standard Design Loads are as follows: 



Spikt Grid 
Number 



Boll 

Diameter 

inches 

.. 3/4.. 

1.... 
,. 3/4.. 

1 . . . . 
,. 3/4.. 

1.... 



Lo«d Applied 
Parallel Perpendicular 

lo grain to grain 

incKct inches 



.012 

.015 

.011 

.018 

.01 

.01 



2!: 



.013 
.021 
.020 
.025 
.020t 
.025t 
fEstimated 



Standard 



Design Loads* for One Spike-Grid and Bolt in Single Shear 



Allowable LOAD In pounds 

per CONNECTOR and BOLT 

at angle of load to grain of 



Species 



GROUP A 

Dense structural 
grades of 
Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine 



GROUP B 

Non-dense 
structural grades 
of Douglas Fir, 
Southern Pine; 
structural grades 
of 

Western Larck, 
Tamarack, Ash, 
Beech, Birch, 
Maple, Oak 



SPIKE-GRID 



Number 



1,2 

and 

3 



GROUP C 

Structural 
grades of 
Cypress, 
Redwood 



1,2 

and 

3 



1,2 

and 

3 



Size 
(inches) 



BOLT 
diameter 
(inches) 



41/8 
X 

41/8 



3/4 



minimum 



Lumber thickness (net) and 10 

pile diameter for Connectors used 



In one 
face only 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



41/8 
X 

41/8 



41/8 
X 

41/8 



3/4 



3/4 



1-5/8* and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



1-5/8' and thicker. 



Opposite in 
two faces 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



2-5/8' and thicker. 



3320 
4100 



3650 
4500 



3160 



3900 



3440 



4250 



2530 
3120 



2610 
3230 



45° 



3000 
3700 



3285 
4050 



2845 



3450 



3035 



3750 



2100 
2590 



2170 
2680 



90° 



2670 
3300 



2920 
3600 



2430 



3000 



2630 



3250 



1670 
2060 



1730 
2130 



*to«d valutt in the table art a conicrvativt interpretation of a limited number of tests with • factor of lafety of 4 on maximum test loads. Further investigation will probably 
show an increase for these values. 



14 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-CLAMPING-PLATES 



CLAMPING-PLATES, Order Number. 

Type 

(All dimensions in inches) 

Length of plate . 

Width of plate 

Thickness of metal 

Depth of flange 

Number of teeth on each face 

Number of teeth on top face . 

Length of teeth 

Diameter of bolt hole 

Shipping weight per 100 pieces, lbs.. 



LUMBER DIMENSIONS, minimum required for in- 
stallation of plates 

Face width 

Thickness, plates in one face only , 

Thickness, plates opposite on both faces. 



BOLT diameter, minimum. 



BOLT HOLE, diameter in timber. 



WASHERS 

Round, cast or malleable iron, diameter. 
Square plate: 

Length of side 

Thickness 



SPACING OF CLAMPING-PLATES 

Minimum center-to-center 

Parallel to grain 

Perpendicular to grain 



END DISTANCES 

Center of plate to end of piece 

Plain type 

Fldnged type: 

Toothed side 

Flanged side 



EDGE DISTANCES 

Center of plate to edge of piece 

Plain type 

Flanged type: 

Toothed side 

Flanged side 



1 
Plain 

5-1/4 

5-1/4 

.077 



12 



.68 

1.12 
65 



6-1/2 
1-5/8 
2-5/8 



3/4 



13/16 



3 

1/4 



3-1/4 



2 
Flansed 

8 
5 
.122 



14 
.72 
1.12 
200 



6-1/2 
2-5/8 

5-1 /2 



3/4 



13/16 



3 

1/4 



8-1/2 

5-1/2 



5 
2-1/2 



3-1/4 
4 




4^^^ 




PLAIN CLAMPING-PLATE 



FLANGED CLAMPING-PLATE 




-GUARD TIMBER - 




RAILROAD TIE 



CLAMPING-PLATES USED BETWEEN RAILROAD 
TIES AND GUARD TIMBERS 

Plates may be used with a bolt through each joint or at every third 
or fourth joint 



DEFORMATION OF JOINTS UNDER LOAD 

The average deformations in inches for clamping-plate joints from 
zero load to Standard Design Loads are as follows: 



Clamping' 

Pldtt 

Number 

1... 
1... 



Load Applied 
Paralltl Pcrptndlculai 

Type ol to grain, to grain. 

Connection inches inchei 



SM^'Bolt 013 

...... No Bolt 013 

2 Teeth Only. . . .019 

2... Flange Only 



.025 



CLAMPING-PLATE SPECIRCATIONS 



SINGLE CLAMPING-PLATE LOADS 

The loads given are for a two member joint assembly with one plain 
or flanged clamping-plate either with or without a bolt through the 
joint as specified in the tables. 

MULTIPLE CLAMPING-PLATE LOADS 

For a joint assembly in which more than one clamping-plate is used, 
the total safe connector load is equal to the sum of the loads specified 
for the individual plates with or without bolts used in the joint 
WIND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

For wind or earthquake loads alone or a combination of wind or 
earthquake with dead or live loads or both, the safe loads on clamping- 
plates may be taken as 116 per cent of the Standard Design 
Loads provided the resulting number of connectors is not 
less than required for the dead and live loads alone. 

iMPAa 

When using Standard Design Loads, the load on a clamping- 
plate due to a force producing impact shall be taken as 
115 per cent of the sum of the force as a static load and the 
load due to its impact. 



LOADS IN RELATION TO DISTANCES AND SPAONGS 

Standard Design Loads are for standard distances and 
spacings. Spacings of plates and end and edge distances 
less than the minimums specified are not recommended, 

CONDITION OF LUMBER 

Tabulated loads apply to the plain clamping-plate (where 
the teeth rather than the flange determine the load capacity) 
used in seasoned lumber which has a moisture content 
not exceeding 15 per cent within 1/2' of the surface. Loads 
for the plain c'amping-plates in green lumber (24 per cent 
or more moisture content) should not exceed 60 per cent 
of those shown; for intermediate moisture contents between 
24 per cent and 15 per cent, interpolate according to the 

f>ercentage of moisture content of the timber surface. Tabu- 
ated loads apply to the flanged clamping-plate in either 
seasoned or green lumber. 



i«^A ^tIS'^^o'^J""-}*?' co«"««on shall be stamped cold from mild steel eonformlag 
Di '■ V^i ■ 5.**"1Y° Specification! for carbon steel A 17-29, Type A, Gradt 1. 

on r.^h ftJ ,i! i'k" t*^f »7/«th Prcecting from each lace. Th. flat sides of tha teeth 
TJ^LfJ.\J .t* Py-I'«« »o each other and arranged with the Rat side, of the teeth on 
li^fk If •^" °^ tht plau ,1 r.ghi angUi to each other. Clamping-pjatas shall conform 

Dl/t. wi!h . JtT.? Ik .'kV'^'*"'*:? clamp ng-plates shall consist of a rectangular steel 

of L IlJ». Zl K k **»« '°"9 «*^SV °' •*»• P"«»«- The metat near the two narrow ends 
tlJ^t^tlJnla* Hi ** "J^\ "5 " *<? *^* "'•*• '"^^ '" • direction opposite to the 
•anuflctl3 Si fhl' Ti 'f^'r *^'«"'P"'9-P'«t" 'hall conform to the dimensions of those 
manuractured by the hmber Engineering Company. 



Standard Design Loads Per Clamping-Plate 



Specie 



GROUP A 

Dense structural 
grades of 
Dou^ldi Fir, 
Southern Pint 



GROUP B 

Non-dense structural 
grades of Douglas 
rir, Southern Pine/ 
structural grades of 
Weftern Larch, 
Tamaracic, Ash, 
Beech, Birch, 
Maple, Oak 



CLAMPING-PLATT 



Number 



1 



1 



GROUP C 

Structural grades of 

Cypress, 

Redwood 



1 



Size 
(inches) 



51/4x514 



Type of Joint 
Connection 



3/4' ThrouQh Bolt 



No Through Bolf^ 



5x8 



51/4x51/4 



5X8 



51/4x51/4 



5x8 



Teeth Only 

(No Through Bolt) 



One Flange Only 
(No Through Bolt) 



3/4* Through Bolt 



No Through Bolt 



Teeth Only 

(No Through Bolt) 



One Flange Only 
(No Through Bolt) 



Angle of 
Load to 
grain 90^ 



3,400 



2,460 



2.920 



1.610 



3.080 



2.230 



2,660 



1,610 



3/4' Through Bolt 



No Through Bolt 



Teeth Only 

^No Through Bolt) 



One Flange Only 
(No Through Bolt) 



2.770 



2.010 



2.390 



1.610 



•Joifil MeMben held in contact by boib oattide ioini ««a. 
B*»»c valoMf Of cUwpinf-pUtM, »ro» wKkK SUwderd DMiyn Loedi wer« derived k>r GroMO B (Dec'ti Un t\m^^ «...,i-^i.- -* • 1^ 1 /«/*»% . u. . •^•^ tt. a 

1940 lb*, to, tht pUin cUp.p.nt-pUU w,th . 3 4' throufh boll .nd with nc throwfK boUtt^ll^i^^iLT^^^^ ^^P *.*".*• S*.'"'!?' *^*° '**! '"^ 

•.nM on.. ,..p»ctiv.iv. With ih. ..c.pt.on of th. ..... fo. th. *un,. on.. oMh. f^::sx:r^::^ ^.'^,1"^,^^ ]^^,. :;ife iVxi5.^wr:? "ciuJh^'oTJjA 

•o-p C .peers ar. 10 per cent .c« th^ tho.. for Gr.u« B .^.;« For wind'lid. bikVelHI^y Cl!!!t\!!!!!ril-i TJ^ ^IT^ 



fpeciet art 1 per cent freetet end for Group C tp«cii 



i per cent ten then thot. for &oup B species. 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



15 



TIMBER CONNECTORS-NET SECTION OF TIMBERS-GALVANIZING SPECIFICATION 



'''IB 



NET SECTION 

The net section of a timber in a connector joint is usually adequate 
to transmit the full strength of the timber which can be developed 
outside of the joint when the lower grades of lumber are used. How- 
ever, it may be desirable to check the strength of the net section of 
timbers when they are of the minimum size recommended herein for 
a given connector, particularly if a high stress- 
grade of lumber is used. 

The critical or "net" section of a timber in a 
joint, which will generally pass through the 
center line of a bolt and connector, occurs at 
the plane of maximum stress. The net cross sec- 
tion at this plane is equal to the full cross-sec- 
tional area of the timber minus the projected 
area of that portion of the connectors within the Shadtd Ar«« Shovrs Net 
member and that portion of the bolts, not Cfo» Section of Timber 
within the connector projected area, located at 
this plane. 

Due to wood being able to support loads of 
short-time duration greatly in excess of permanently applied loads, 
computation of the required net section in tension or compression in- 
volves consideration of the different types and amounts of loadings. 
Constants in the table for Standard loading apply for the same load- 
ing conditions as described on page 3 for Standard Design Loads 
for connectors. Constants for wind or earthquake loads apply to wind 
and earthquake loads alone or when combined with live or dead loads 
or both; in which cases however the resulting net section shall not be 
less than required for dead and live loads alone. Constants for impact 
apply to that portion of impact which exceeds 100 per cent of the 
load producing the impact. Constants for dead load apply where the 
full design load is permanently applied. 

The net cross sectional area in square inches required at the critical 
section may be determined by multiplying the total load in pounds, 
which is transferred through the critical section of the member, by the 
appropriate constant given in the table. Conversely, the total working 
load capacity in pounds of a given net area may be determined by 
dividing the net area in square inches by the appropriate constant. 



♦CONSTANTS FOR USE IN DETERMINING REQUIRED NET SECTION 
IN SQUARE INCHES 



Standard. 



Type of Loading 



Wind or Earthquake. 



Impact. 



Dead Load. 



Thickness of 

Wood Member 

in Inches 



4' or less 
over 4" 

4' or less 
over 4* 

4' or less 
over 4" 

4' or less 
over 4' 



CONSTANTS FOR EACH 
CONNECTOR LOAD GROUP 



Group A 



.00041 
.00051 



.00031 
.00039 



.00023 
.00029 



Group B 



.00046 
.00058 



.00036 
.00044 



. 00027 
.00033 



.00047 
.00058 



.00053 
.00067 



Group C 



.00048 
.00060 



.00037 
.00046 



.00028 
.00035 



.00055 
.00069 



♦The above constants, computed from basic recommendations of the 
Forest Products Laboratory, are based on a permissible tensile stress at the 
net section equal to the basic stress for clear wood in compression parallel 
to grain increased 25 per cent for the greater strength of dry material 4* 
and less in thickness and adjusted for the duration-of-loading effect by 
an increase of 15 per cent for standard loading, 50 per cent for wind op 
earthquake loading, and 100 per cent for impact loading. 

The above recommendations assume the condition usually encoun- 
tered, that a knot approaching the maximum size allowed for the grade 
will not occur at, or within one-half the connector diameter of, the 
plane of the critical section. When it is anticipated that knots approach- 
ing the maximum size may be present at or near the critical plane the 
critical section area must be further reduced by the projected area of 
the knot, excluding from the reduction any portion of the knot which 
is within the projected area of the connector or bolt. 

For the clamping-plates, net section is generally not a factor in 
determining the size of the timbers in which they are used but it may 
be computed by subtracting the projected area of the bolt diameter 
only from the cross section, since the teeth of the plate, embedded with 
their flat sides parallel to the grain, cut only a small percentage of the 
wood fibers. 



SPECIFICATION WHEN GALVAN- 
IZING IS REQUIRED 

The Galvanizing specifications for all 
types of timber connectors shall conform 
to A.S.T.M. Standard Specifications for 
Galvanizing. 

1. Zinc used in the bath shall be 
at least equal to "Prime Western." 

2. The weight of the zinc coating 
per square foot of actual surface shall 
average not less than 2.0 oz, and no 
individual specimen shall show less 
than 1.8 oz., weight to be determined 
by stripping an entire piece by A.S.T.M. 
Standard Method A 90-33. 

3. The zinc coating shall be ad- 
herent, smooth, continuous and thorough, 
except that uncoated spots on the tongue 
and groove surfaces in contact will not 
be cause for rejection. It shall be free 
from imperfections such as bumps, 
blisters, gritty areas, uncoated spots, 
acid and black spots, dross and flux. 

4. When visual inspection and testing 
with 1/2 lb. hammer is not conclusive, 
tests shall be made by the Preece method, 
in which case the minimum thickness of 
coating shall withstand at least seven 
1-minute dips. 

5. Test samples may be selected from 
deliveries at random and will be tested 
by the purchaser and at purchaser's 
expense. 



PROJECTED AREA OF CONNECTORS AND BOLTS 
(For Use in Determining Net Sections) 



Connector 
No. Size 



SPLIT-RINGS 
1 2-1 /2 



TOOTHED- 
RINGS 



2-5/8 



3-3/8 



CLAW-PLATES 
1 and 1A 2-5/8 



2and2A 



3 and 3A 4 



3-1/8 



Bolt 
Diam. 

(inches) 



1/2 
1/2 



3/4 
3/4 



3/4 
3/4 



/2 
1/2 



5/8 
5/8 



3/4 

3/4 



3/4 
3/4 



1/2 
1/2 



SHEAR-PLATES 
1 2-5/8 



2-A 



SPIKE-GRIDS 



1.2 
and 3 



4-1/8 

X 

4-1/8 



1/2 

1/2 



Placement 

of 
Connectors 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



Total Projected Area in Square Inches of Connectors and 
Bolts in Lumber Thickness of 



1-5/8' 



1.73 
2.64 



3 09 

4.97 



4.91 



1.52 
2.22 



1.95 
2.89 



2.46 
3.70 



1.92 
2.83 



3.37 
5.25 



5.19 
8.88 



1.71 
2.41 



2.18 
3.12 



2.75 
4.28 



One Face 
Two Faces 



3/4 
3/4 



3/4 
3/4 



3/4 
3/4 



7/8 
7/8 



3/4 

3/4 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



One Face 
Two Faces 



2.41 



2.78 



3 66 



1.92 
2.62 



3.23 



3.36 



2.90 



3.18 



2.74 
3 98 



3 03 

4 56 



2.60 
4.19 



2.97 

4.93 



2-5/8' 



2.23 

3.14 



3.84 
5.72 



5.66 

9.35 



2 02 
2.72 



2 58 
3.52 



3.21 
4.45 



3.50 
5.03 



2.91 
4.50 



3 94 

6.37 



2.20 
2 90 



3.69 
5.62 



3.18 
4.87 



3.56 

5,13 



3 28 
5.24 



2.42 
3.34 



4.12 
6 00 



5 94 
9.63 



2 21 
2.91 



2.81 
3.75 



3.49 
4.73 



3 78 
5.31 



3.10 
4.69 



3-5/8' 



2.73 
3.64 



4.59 

6.47 



6.41 
10.10 



2.52 
3.22 



3.20 
4.14 



3.96 
5.20 



4.25 

5.78 



2.92 
3.83 



4 87 
6.75 



6.69 
10.38 



2.71 
3.41 



3.44 
4.38 



4.24 
5.48 



4.41 
6.84 



2.67 
3.37 



4.24 
6.17 



3.65 
5.34 



4.18 

5.75 



3.47 
5.43 



4.69 

7.12 



2.95 
3.65 



4.26 
6.27 



4.56 
6.49 



3.93 
5.62 



4.56 

6.13 



3.41 
5.00 



3.78 
5.74 



3.42 
4.12 



4.73 
6.74 



5.11 
7.04 



4.40 
6 09 



5.18 

6.75 



4 53 
6.06 



5-1 /2' 



3.67 
4.58 



6.00 
7.16 



7.10 
10.79 



3.46 
4.16 



4.37 
5.31 



5.37 
6.61 



3.92 
4.83 



6 37 
8.25 



8.19 
11.83 



3.71 
4.41 



4.69 
5.63 



5.66 
7.19 



3 60 
5.19 



3 97 
5 93 



5.44 
7.87 



3.70 
4.40 



5.44 
7.37 



4.68 
6.37 



5.56 

7.13 



4.35 
5.94 



4.72 
6.68 



6.57 
9.00 



4.83 
5 53 



6.14 
8.15 



6.75 
8.68 



5.81 
7.50 



7.06 
8.63 



5.74 
6.98 



6.03 
7.56 



7-1/2' 



4.67 
5.58 



7.50 
9.38 



9.32 
13 01 



4.92 
5,83 



7.87 
9.75 



9.69 
13.38 



4.46 
5.16 



5.62 
6.56 



6.87 
8.11 



4.60 
6.19 



4.97 
6.93 



6 94 
9.37 



5 20 
5 90 



6.51 
8.52 



7.19 
8 12 



6.18 
7.87 



7.56 
9.13 



7.16 
8.69 



5.53 
6.94 



5.72 
7.68 



8 07 
10 50 



6.33 
7.03 



7.64 
9.65 



8.50 
10.43 



4.71 
5.41 



5.94 
6.88 



7.24 
8.48 



7.53 
9.06 



5.60 
7.19 



5 97 
7.93 



8.44 
10.87 



6.70 
7.40 



8.01 
10.02 



8 94 
10.87 



7.31 
9.00 



9.06 
0.63 



7.68 
9.37 



9.56 
11.13 



16 



WOOD STRUCTURAL DESIGN DATA 



PROPERTIES OF LUMBER SIZES-LEGEND 



NOMINAL 

SIZE 
b Inches h 



-f jf 

{ 

b 



DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES OF AMERICAN STANDARD SIZES 
OF YARD LUMBER AND TIMBERS 



4 

6 

8 

10 



2 x-ife 

2 X 14 
2 X 16 
2 X 18 



3x4 

3x6 
3x8 
3 X 10 



3 X 12 
3 X 14 
3 X 16 
3 X 18 



4x4 
4x6 
4x8 
4 X 10 



4 X 12 
4 X 14 
4 X 16 
4 X 18 



6 

8 

10 



6 X 12 
6 X 14 
6 X 16 
6 X 18 



8x8 
8 X 10 
8 X 12 



8 X 14 
8 X 16 
8 X 18 



10 
10 



10 
12 



10 X 14 
10 X 16 
10 X 18 



12 X 12 
12 X 14 
12 X 16 
12 X 18 



14 X 14 
14 X 16 
14 X 18 
14 X 20 



AMERICAN 

STANDARD 

DRESSED SIZE (S4S) 

b Inches h 



1-5/8 X 3-5/8 

1-5/8 X 5-5/8 

1-5/8 X 7-1/2 

1-5/8 X 9-1/2 



1-5/8 X 11-1/2 
1-5/8 X 13-1/2 
1-5/8 X 15-1/2 
1-5/8 X 17-1/2 



2-5/8 X 3-5/8 

2-5/8 X 5-5/8 

2-5/8 X 7-1/2 

2-5/8 X 9-1/2 



2-5/8 X 11-1/2 
2-5/8 X 13-1/2 
2-5/8 X 15-1/2 
2-5/8 X 17-1/2 



3-5/8 X 3-5/8 

3-5/8 X 5-5/8 

3-5/8 X 7-1/2 

3-5/8 X 9-1/2 



3-5/8 X 11-1/2 
3-5/8 X 13-1/2 
3-5/8 X 15-1/2 
3-5/8 X 17-1/2 



5-1/2 X 5-1/2 
5-1/2 X 7-1/2 
5-1/2 X 9-1/2 



5-1/2 X 11-1/2 
5-1/2 X 13-1/2 
5-1/2 X 15-1/2 
5-1/2 X 17-1/2 



7-1/2 X 7-1/2 
7-1/2 X 9-1/2 
7-1/2 X 11-1/2 



7-1/2 X 13-1/2 
7-1/2 X 15-1/2 
7-1/2 X 17-1/2 



9-1/2 X 9-1/2 
9-1/2 X 11-1/2 



9-1/2 X 13-1/2 
9-1/2 X 15-1/2 
9-1/2 X 17-1/2 



11-1/2 X 11-1/2 

11-1/2 X 13-1/2 

11-1/2 X 15-1/2 

11-1/2 X 17-1/2 



13-1/2 X 13-1/2 
13-1/2 X 15-1/2 
13-1/2 X 17-1/2 
13-1/2 X 19-1/2 



AREA OF 
SECTION 
(Sq. In.) 
A=bXh 



5.89 

9.14 

12.19 

15.44 



18.69 
21.94 
25.19 
28.44 



9.52 
14.77 
19.69 
24.94 



30.19 
35.44 
40.69 
45.94 



13.14 
20.39 
27.19 
34.44 



41.69 
48.94 
56.19 
63.44 



30 25 

41.25 
52.25 



63 25 
74 25 
85.25 
96.25 



56 25 
71.25 
86 25 



101.25 
116.25 
131.25 



90 25 
109 25 



128 25 
147.25 
166.25 



132 25 
155 25 

178 25 
201.25 



182 25 
209 25 
236 25 
263 25 



MOMENT OF INERTIA 



I X— x = 

bh3/12 



6.45 

24.10 

57.13 

116.10 



205.95 
333.18 
504.27 
725.75 



10.42 
38.93 
92.29 

187.55 



332.69 

538 . 21 

814.60 

1172.36 



14.39 

53.76 

127.44 

259.00 



459.43 

743.24 

1124 92 

1618.98 



76.26 
193.36 
392.96 



697.07 
1127.67 
1 706 . 78 
2456 . 38 



263 . 67 
535.86 
950.55 



1537.73 
2327.42 
3349.61 



678.76 
1204.03 



1947 80 
2948,07 
4242.84 



1*57.51 
2357 86 
3568 71 
5136.07 



2767.92 
4189 36 
6029 30 
8341 73 



I y-y^ 

b3h/12 



1.30 
2.01 
2.68 
3.40 



4.11 
4.83 
5.54 
6.25 



5.46 

8.48 

11.30 

14.32 



17.33 
20.35 
23.36 
26.38 



14.39 
22.33 
29.77 
37.71 



45 65 
53.59 
61.53 
69.47 



76.26 
103.98 
131.71 



159.44 
187.17 
214.90 
242.63 



263.67 
333.98 
404.30 



474.61 
544 92 
615.23 



678.76 
821.65 



964 . 55 
1107.44 
1250.34 



1457.51 
1710 98 
1964 46 
2217.94 



2767.92 
3177.98 
3588 05 
3998 11 



SECTION MODULUS 



S x-x = 
bh2/6 



3.56 

8.57 

15.23 

24.44 



35.82 
49.36 
65.07 
82.94 



5.75 
13.84 
24.61 
39.48 



57.86 

79.73 

105.11 

1 33 . 98 



7.94 
19 12 
33.98 
54,53 



79.90 
110.11 
145.15 
185.03 



27.73 
51 56 
82.73 



121 23 
167.06 
220.23 
280.73 



70.31 
112.81 
165.31 



227 81 

300 31 
382.81 



142.90 
209.40 



288.56 
380.40 
484.90 



253 48 

349.31 
460.48 
586.98 



410 06 
540 56 

689.06 
855 56 



LINEAR CONVERSION TABLE 



Sy-y = 

b2h/6 



1.60 
2.48 
3.30 
4.18 



5.06 
5.94 
6.82 
7.70 



4.16 

6.46 

8.61 

10.91 



13.21 
15.50 
17.80 
20.10 



7.94 
12.32 
16.43 
20.81 



25 19 
29.57 
33.95 
38 . 33 



27.73 
37.81 
47.90 



57.98 
68 06 
78.15 
88 23 



70.31 

89 06 

107 81 



126 56 
145 31 
164.06 



142.90 
172 98 



203 . 06 
233.15 
263 23 



253 48 

297.56 
341.65 
385.73 



410 06 

470.81 
531 . 56 
592.31 



Fraction of Inch Decimal of Inch Decimal of Foot 



1/16 
1/8 
S/16 
1/4 

5/16 
S/B 
7/16 
1/2 

9/16 

5/8 

11 16 

3 4 

13/16 

7/8 

15 16 

1 



0625 
.1250 
.1875 
.2500 

3125 
.3750 
.4375 
.5000 

5625 
.6250 
.6875 
.7500 

8125 
8750 
9375 

1 0000 



0052 
0104 
.0156 
.0208 

0260 
.0313 
.0365 
.0417 

0469 
0521 
.0573 
.0625 

0677 
.0729 
0781 
0833 



Inches 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

to 

11 
12 



Decimal of Foot 



0.0833 

.1667 
.2500 
.3333 

0.4167 
.5000 

.5833 

.6667 

7500 
8333 

.9167 

1 0000 



LEGEND FOR TIMBER CONNECTORS, 
GROOVES AND DAPS 

The sample lesends shown below indicate the 
sizes and positions of connectors on structural draw- 
ings and shop details. 

All types of circular connectors may be Indicated 
on structural drawings by a circle with the type, si/c 
and number of connectors arrd bolts written in near 
the joint. Where two types of connectors occur 
in the same design, a double circle for indicating one 
type and a single circle for the other type will make 
it easier to determine rapidly the location of each 
type of connector. The square grids and clamping 

Clates may be shown by a square drawn around the 
olt hole; the number of connectors and type, also 
the bolt size should be written in on the drawing. 

Grooves or daps for connectors on shop drawings 
may likewise be indicated by a circle provided only 
one kind is used on a drawing. If grooves and daps 
must both be shown, a single and double lined circle 
will be sufficient to differentiate them. Where three 
types of grooves must be cut, a solid circle within a 
dashed circle may be used to indicate the third type. 
The diameter of the groove or dap must be written 
on the drawing to avoid confusion unless all are the 
same diameter. The occurrence of the groove or 
dap on the near. Far or both faces may be indicated 
by a diagonal line as shown on the accompanying 
sketch. 



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A, 



L3jj£.. 







23e/7f5fraps, 



DETAILS 




y/d 



5pf/fPJng 
Grvoims 



Cb^PJbte 
Daps 






LEGEND FOR GROOVES AND DAPS 
(Shop DcUiU) 



Printed in U S A 10-5O-50M- 



-12-*0-30M